All available strategies for preventing sexual transmission of HIV involve behaviour change, yet there has been remarkably little research into the effectiveness of individual level approaches, with the lack most notable in settings of high HIV prevalence. Research that has considered whether behaviour change interventions could reduce the number of new infections has not shown clear evidence of effectiveness (Kamali et al 2003; Ross, personal communication). A review of school-based HIV prevention programmes in Africa showed that studies commonly find improvements in knowledge and attitudes (Gallant & Matika-Tyndale 2004), but simply improving knowledge and attitudes might not be enough to prevent new occurrence of disease. There is an urgent need to identify effective behavioural interventions and to learn from their evaluation which approaches are more or less effective and how we can improve prevention programs.
View the complete Evaluation of Stepping Stones: A gender transformative HIV prevention intervention policy brief